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Last updated: 11 Jul 2012
Country199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200620072010
Afghanistan         951      874857
Albania                 397
Algeria         52      52,452,7
Andorra             52,3  52,352,5
Angola         951      484557
Antigua and Barbuda                52,452,7
Argentina             52,3  5452,7
Armenia          26     264197
Australia             52,3  52,352,5
Austria             52,3  52,352,5
Azerbaijan                7477
Bahamas             52,3  52,352,5
Bahrain             52,3  52,352,5
Bangladesh             88  904917
Barbados             52,3  52,352,7
Belarus                52,452,7
Belgium             52,3  52,352,5
Belize                104127
Benin           95    944917
Bermuda             52,3  52,3 
Bhutan                544407
Bolivia        25       314297
Bosnia and Herzegovina             51  494457
Botswana 65              404377
Brazil             12  7467
Brunei Darussalam                52,352,5
Bulgaria                 146
Burkina Faso             951  951,4927
Burundi        951       951,4951,7
Cambodia          951     914897
Cameroon           83    814757
Canada             52,3  52,352,5
Cape Verde                364327
Cayman Islands             52,3  52,3 
Central African Republic   951            951,4951,7
Chad             951  934887
Channel Islands             52,3    
Chile                52,367
China      80         484467
Colombia          15     134147
Comoros             76  764717
Congo             84  844777
Cook Islands                52,452,7
Costa Rica               134 67
Cote d'Ivoire             74  794787
Croatia             12  12487
Cuba                5497
Cyprus             52,3  52,352,5
Czech Republic             52  52,452,7
Democratic Republic of the Congo         951      951,4937
Denmark             52,3  52,352,5
Djibouti      6         164137
Dominica                 52,7
Dominican Republic             14  7477
Ecuador             52  52,452,7
Egypt          52     52,452,7
El Salvador                234227
Equatorial Guinea                 516
Eritrea     80          634607
Estonia             15  164117
Ethiopia             951  951,4951,7
Fiji      48          377
Finland             52,3  52,352,5
France             52,3  52,352,5
Gabon          28     274267
Gambia        951       954917
Georgia             42  434467
Germany             52,3  52,352,5
Ghana             88  864847
Greece             52,3  52,352,5
Greenland             52,3  52,3 
Grenada                 52,7
Guatemala             62  624577
Guinea     951          951,4951,7
Guinea-Bissau    95           951,4951,7
Guyana                11477
Haiti          951     934917
Honduras                574517
Hungary             52,3  52,352,5
Iceland             52,3  52,352,5
India             74  604587
Indonesia             72  584557
Iran (Islamic Republic of)         52      52,452,7
Iraq         52      5452,7
Ireland             52,3  52,352,5
Israel             52,3  52,352,5
Italy             52,3  52,352,5
Jamaica                164117
Japan             52,3  52,352,5
Jordan                52,452,7
Kazakhstan             5  12497
Kenya              81 754807
Kiribati                 806
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of                 917
Korea, Republic of             52,3  52,452,7
Kuwait             52,3  52,352,5
Kyrgyzstan                374347
Lao People's Democratic Republic             951  951,4951,7
Latvia             10  10457
Lebanon       52        52,452,7
Lesotho                714617
Liberia                951,4951,7
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya       52        52,452,7
Liechtenstein             52,3  52,3 
Lithuania             52,3  52,3216
Luxembourg             52,3  52,352,5
Madagascar         951      951,4951,7
Malawi             951  951,4951,7
Malaysia             52  52,452,7
Maldives                10487
Mali           951    951,4951,7
Malta             52,3  52,352,5
Marshall Islands                314327
Mauritania             65  604587
Mauritius             52  52,452,7
Mexico             12  154147
Micronesia, Federated States of                444417
Monaco             52,3  52,352,5
Mongolia                774727
Montenegro                324287
Morocco             5  7452,7
Mozambique                951,4957
Myanmar              95 951,4927
Namibia             63  574557
Nauru                5452,7
Nepal             80  824827
Netherlands             52,3  52,352,5
New Zealand             52,3  52,352,5
Nicaragua           58    564547
Niger     951          951,4951,7
Nigeria  67             794747
Niue                5452,7
Norway             52,3  52,352,5
Oman             52,3  52,352,5
Pakistan              72 664647
Palau                52,452,7
Panama                164187
Papua New Guinea      90          737
Paraguay             58  524497
Peru          33     364367
Philippines             47  474507
Poland             52,3  52,352,5
Portugal             52,3  52,352,5
Puerto Rico             52,3  52,3 
Qatar             52,3  52,452,7
Republic of Moldova                154117
Romania            23   234177
Russian Federation             7  7452,7
Rwanda          951     951,4951,7
Saint Kitts and Nevis             52,3  52,3566
Saint Lucia                52,452,7
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines                 52,7
Samoa                444537
San Marino             52,3  52,352,5
Sao Tome and Principe                 717
Saudi Arabia             52,3  52,352,5
Senegal             41  514517
Serbia                344327
Seychelles             52,3  52,352,7
Sierra Leone92               951,4951,7
Singapore             52,3  52,352,5
Slovakia             52  52,452,7
Slovenia             8  8452,7
Solomon Islands                924907
Somalia                951,4951,7
South Africa             18  174157
Spain             52  52,452,5
Sri Lanka             67  724757
Sudan (former)         951      904797
Suriname                 127
Swaziland             68  584557
Sweden             52,3  52,352,5
Switzerland             52,3  52,352,5
Syrian Arab Republic                52,452,7
Tajikistan         75      214347
Thailand       72        254267
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia                374337
Timor-Leste                 927
Togo                951,4947
Tokelau                52,4 
Tonga                454437
Trinidad and Tobago                52,452,7
Tunisia             5  52,452,7
Turkey         11       52,7
Turkmenistan          52     52,452,7
Tuvalu                254197
Uganda           951    951,4951,7
Ukraine             6  7452,7
United Arab Emirates             52  52,452,7
United Kingdom             52,3  52,352,5
United Republic of Tanzania   951            944947
United States             52,3  52,352,5
Uruguay             52  52,452,7
Uzbekistan                164117
Vanuatu                854847
Venezuela                 52,7
Viet Nam             70  614567
Yemen        42       364337
Zambia            85   864837
Zimbabwe             73  714667
Footnotes
1
Value is greater than 95%.
2
Values is less than 5%.
3
All countries with a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita above US$ 10,500 and for which no survey data is available are assumed to have made a complete transition to using non-solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking and heating.
4
In estimating solid fuel use for a given year, the methods developed and implemented by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (WHO & UNICEF 2006 ) were followed. Solid fuel information is either extrapolated (single year data point), averaged (two or more years that are spaced four or fewer years apart) or a linear regression is performed when solid fuel use information is available for two or more years that are spaced at least five years apart.
5
When no solid fuel use information was available for a country classified as high-income with a Gross National Income (GNI) of more than US$ 12,276.- per capita (The World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications, accessed January 12, 2012) in any given year, solid fuel use is assumed to be less than 5% (Rehfuess, Mehta & Prüss-Üstün, EHP, 114(3), 2006).
6
When no solid fuel use information was available for the country, estimates from a global linear model using several predictor variables was developed by UC Berkeley (Adair-Rohani & al, in preparation for publication) were used. Estimates in countries without survey data should be interpreted with caution, and provide indicative values only. Note that this approach was aslo applied to Equatorial Guinea instead of the one used for high-income countries (see below).
7
When solid fuel use information was available for the country, the multilevel model estimates were used.
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