Agriculture support is the annual monetary value of all gross transfers from taxpayers and consumers, both domestic and foreign (in the form of subsidies arising from policy measures that support agriculture), net of the associated budgetary receipts, regardless of their objectives and impacts on farm production and income, or consumption of farm products.
For agricultural products, the total support estimate (TSE) represents the overall taxpayer and consumer costs of agricultural policies. When expressed as a percentage of GDP, the total support estimate is an indicator of the cost to the economy as a whole.
Agricultural products comprise plant and animal products, including tree crops but excluding timber and fish products. Clothing and textiles include natural and synthetic fibers and fabrics and articles of clothing made from them.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output. Value added is the net output of an industry after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs.
a) Agricultural support estimate (US$ million)
b) Agricultural support estimate / GDP (%)
Components of Agriculture support and GDP are described in the “Definition” section, above.
Excludes general welfare payments to farmers and agricultors.
National figures may refer to agriculture production subsidies.
All data on ODA are collected by the OECD/DAC Secretariat from its 23 members, then checked and aggregated by the OECD/DAC Secretariat. The DAC Secretariat collects two sets of data:
1. DAC Questionnaire. A set of eight statistical tables completed annually in the Fall by DAC members, who report the amount and destination of their official and private flows made in the previous year. Detailed information is collected regarding the destination, form, terms, sector and tying status of official flows. A simplified form of the questionnaire is completed by multilateral agencies. Non-DAC donors also report on a voluntary basis on an abridged questionnaire. There is also a one-page “Advance Questionnaire on Main DAC Aggregates” completed by DAC members each April to give preliminary data on their ODA flows made in the previous year. See www.oecd.org/dac/stats/dac/guide for details.
2. Creditor Reporting System (CRS). A system for reporting individual official transactions (both ODA and other official flows) relevant to development. Reports are received directly from participating official agencies, including bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, development lending institutions, and export credit agencies. Follow up reports on the disbursement and repayment status of loans allow the Secretariat to calculate the debt burden of developing countries. See www.oecd.org/dac/stats/dac/guide for details.
The DAC Working Party on Statistics reviews the operation of the data collection system in annual formal meetings, and in informal meetings. The OECD/DAC Secretariat checks the data and their compliance with the methodology. Bilateral work with reporters is undertaken as necessary in order to resolve reporting issues.
Data on agricultural support are produced by the OECD Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries - the process is analogous (source data are directly provided by the 30 OECD members, the OECD Secretariat is responsible for producing the indicator).
There is not adjustment for missing data, as the indicator is calculated only in years and countries for which suitable data are available.
Data are available for approximately 11 countries.
Data are compiled annually, generally around March. At that time (say year y), tariff data are available for the preceding year (y-1), and trade data for y-2. The indicators are thus compiled for year y-2.
Regional and global aggregates are made by straight addition and do not involve any estimation for missing values.
Imports and tariff data are available from most developed markets (see data availability). These markets cover some 97% of developed countries' imports from developing or least developed countries. For the remaining 3%, the same import and tariff structure is assumed. These data include exports from all their developing and least developed trading countries partners. For a particular group of exporters, the situation is the following: tariffs are weighted according to the standard import structure.
Estimates are published annually, at the end of the calendar year in the OECD, Producer and Consumer Support Estimates database.