The Proportion of urban population living in slums is the proportion of urban population living in slum households. A slum household is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the following conditions:
- Access to improved water
- Access to improved sanitation
- Sufficient-living area
- Durability of housing
- Security of tenure
However, since information on secure tenure is not available for most of the countries, only the first four indicators are used to define slum household, and then to estimate the proportion of urban population living in slums.
Access to improved water:
Improved drinking water technologies are more likely to provide safe drinking water than those characterized as unimproved. A household is considered to have access to an improved water supply if it uses improved drinking water sources or delivery points (listed below).
Improved drinking water sources include: piped water into dwelling, plot or yard; public tap/standpipe; tube well/borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; and rainwater collection.
Unimproved drinking water sources include: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank/drum; bottled water ; tanker-truck; and surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels).
Access to improved sanitation:
Improved sanitation facilities are more likely to prevent human contact with human excreta than unimproved facilities. A household is considered to have access to improved sanitation if it uses improved sanitation facilities (listed below).
Improved sanitation facilities include: flush or pour-flush to piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine; pit latrine with slab; and composting toilet.
Unimproved sanitation facilities include: flush or pour–flush to elsewhere ; pit latrine without slab or open pit; bucket; hanging toilet or hanging latrine; no facilities or bush or field.
Durability of housing: A house is considered “durable” if it is built on a non-hazardous location and has a structure permanent and adequate enough to protect its inhabitants from the extremes of climatic conditions, such as rain, heat, cold and humidity.
Sufficient living area: A house is considered to provide a sufficient living area for the household members if not more than three people share the same habitable (minimum of four square meters) room.
Secure tenure: Secure tenure is the right of all individuals and groups to effective protection by the State against arbitrary unlawful evictions. People have secure tenure when there is evidence of documentation that can be used as proof of secure tenure status or when there is either de facto or perceived protection against forced evictions.
||According to the situation in a specific city this definition may be locally adapted. For example, in Rio de Janeiro living area is insufficient for both the middle classes and the slum population and is not a good discriminator. It could either be omitted, or it could be formulated as two or more of the conditions such as overcrowding and durability of housing.
||Bottled water is considered improved only when the household uses water from an improved source for cooking and personal hygiene.
||Only facilities, which are not shared or are not public are considered improved.
||Excreta are flushed to the street, yard or plot, open sewer, a ditch, a drainage way or other location.
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